By H Schenk; International Union of Crystallography
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Additional resources for An introduction to direct methods : the most important phase relationships and their application in solving the phase problem
3). e. the magnitude of k o), or for particular angles of incidence, will a point of the reciprocal lattice fall on the Ewald sphere. The various procedures for determining structures differ in the method by which this condition is obtained. One can, for example, simply turn the crystal (preferably about a principal axis oriented perpendicular to the incident beam). Since the reciprocal lattice is associated in a fixed manner to the real crystal lattice, a rotation of the crystal corresponds to a rotation of the reciprocal lattice through the Ewald sphere (whose position in space is defined by the incident beam and is therefore fixed).
9). These are 10 eV - 1 keY 10meV - 1 eV 1 keY -100 keY for electrons, for neutrons and light atoms, for photons. The actual uses of these various probes in structure analyses are determined by the interaction cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering, and also by the availability and intensity of the sources. For electrons between 10 eV and 1 keY the interaction cross sections are so large that only 10- 50 A of solid material can be penetrated by the beam. Thus electrons are frequently employed to gather information about the atomic structure of surfaces.
7). One of the mirror planes is the plane defined by the atoms of the molecule; the other is perpendicular to this and passes through the oxygen atom, bisecting the molecule. 2 Inversion Inversion symmetry is described by the coordinate transformation Z' = -z. 2 Point Symmetry 23 Fig. 4. The cyclohexane molecule (C 6 H 12). The principal symmetry element is the 3-fold axis of rotation C 3• The molecule also has a center of inversion, three mirror planes and, perpendicular to the main axis, three 2-fold rotation axes at 120 0 to one another.
An introduction to direct methods : the most important phase relationships and their application in solving the phase problem by H Schenk; International Union of Crystallography